Physiology , Anatomy Levels of Organization Lecture Notes بروفسيورعلي التميمي

Physiology & Anatomy of  Levels of Organization Physiology Lecture Notes

بروفسيورعلي التميمي ,استاذ الباثوفسيولوجي والتشريح المرضي

البروفسيور د. علي التميمي ,استاذ الباثوفسيولوجي والتشريح المرضي,دكتوراة الكلية الملكية انكلترا,وزميل كلية الامراض  البورد الامريكي

Prof Ali Altimimi Professor of PathoPhysiology & Anatomical Pathology

MbCHB,MSC,PHD,MD.Royal College London

محاضرات للاقسام الطبية لطلبة كلية الرافدين الجامعة

Levels of Organization Physiology& Anatomy Lecture Notes

Levels of Organization (from simplest to most complex) Atoms → Molecules → Macromolecules →Organelles → Cells →Tissues → Organs → Organ Systems → Organism

General Organization of the Body:

Axial Portion – head, neck, trunk | Appendicular Portion – arms & legs

  1. Several body cavities and layers of membranes within cavities

    2. Variety of organs and organ systems within cavities

    (VISCERA = internal organs. also: “visceral organs”)

Body Cavities Dorsal Cavity | Ventral Cavity

1. IntegumentaryBody covering. Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands.
– protect underlying tissues, regulate body temperature
2. SkeletalBones, ligaments, cartilage
– Support, movement, protection; production of blood cells
3. MuscularMuscles of the body
– Movement, posture, production of body heat
4. NervousBrain, spinal cord, nerves
– Communication, mental activities
5. EndocrineGlands = pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, ovaries, testes
– Secretion of hormones, chemical communication
6. DigestiveMouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines,
– Breakdown of food (digestion), absorption
7. CirculatoryHeart, blood vessels, blood.
– Transports materials throughout the body.
8. Lymphatic( Immune System) – fights infections
8. UrinaryKidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
– filters wastes from the blood, maintains water balance
9. ReproductiveReproductive organs, primarily the ovaries (females) and testes (males)
  1. Thoracic Cavity – right and left separated by mediastinum.

    2. Abdominopelvic Cavity (abdominal + pelvic cavity)

DIAPHRAGM – separates thoracic and abdominal cavity

SEROUS MEMBRANE – two layers, covers organs

outer layer = PARIETAL layer and forms a “lining”

inner layPhysiology & Anatomy of Levels of Organization Physiology Lecture Notes بروفسيورعلي التميمي er = VISCERAL layer, covers the surface of organs

  1. Pleura (or pleural membrane) – surrounds the lungs

    2. Pericardium (or pericardial membrane) – surrounds the heart

    3. Peritoneum (or peritoneal membrane) – surrounds organs within the abdominopelvic cavity

*Between the layers of each membrane is a lubricating fluid which is called SEROUS FLUID

Anatomical Position

Superior / Inferior

Medial / Lateral

Anterior/ Posterior

Proximal / Distal

Superficial / Deep

Sagittal | Transverse | Frontal (coronal