Blood Physiology,Blood Cells,Hemoglobin Hb REVIEW ‪Professor Ali Altimimi ,فسلجة الدم هيموكلوبين

Blood Physiology,Blood Cells,Hemoglobin Hb REVIEW ‪Professor Ali Altimimi 14Pred fبروفسيورعلي التميمي ,فسلجة الدم هيموكلوبين

البروفسیور د. علي حسن التمیمي ,استاذ طب الامراض والفسلجة الطبیة,دكتوراة الكلیة الملكیة انكلترا,وزمیل كلیة الامراض  البورد الامریكي

Blood Physiology,Blood Cells,Hemoglobin Hb REVIEW Professor Ali Altimimi

Hemopoiesis or Hematopoiesis

Blood Physiology Blood Cells & Hemoglobin(Hb)

Blood Cells

Types of blood cells

  1. Hemopoiesis (Hematopoiesis)
  2. Red Blood Cells (RBC)


  • Blood cells makes about 45 % of the total blood

volume (5600ml)  i.e. 2500   ml.

  • Blood cells are the solid phase of theblood. Types:
  1. Red Blood Cells ( RBC’s ) or erythrocytes.
  2. White Blood Cells ( WBC’s ) or leukocytes.

III. Cell Fragments called platelets or thrombocytes

Blood Cells

Hemopoiesis or Hematopoiesis

  • is the process of blood cells production.
  • Erthropoiesis: is the proliferation & differentiation of

RBC’s or erythrocytes.

  • Leukopoiesis: is the development of WBC’s or


Thrombopoiesis: is the development of platelets or


Hemopoiesis or Hematopoiesis

  • The bone marrow —- multipotent uncommitted stem cells

(pluripotential stem cells) —- differentiate ——committed

stem cells (progenitor cells) —–differentiated into various

differentiated types of blood cells.

Proerythroblasts ( pronormoblast ): erythrocytes develop.

  1. Myeloblasts: from which granulocytes ( Neutrophil,

eosinophils & basophile ) develop.

  1. Lymphoblasts: From which lymphocytes ( T & B-

lymphocytes ) develop.

  1. Monoblast: from which monocytes develop.
  2. Megakaryoblasts: from which platelets or thombocytes


Hemopoiesis or Hematopoiesis

Red blood cells or erythrocytes

  • About 95 %  of the volume  of the blood  cells  consists  of


  • No nuclei in RBC.
  • Erythropoiesis:

is the process of RBC’s production.


  • The rate of erythropoiesis is regulated by erythropoietin.
  • 90% of the erythropoietin is formed in the kidneys &

10% in the liver.

  • The function of this hormone is to stimulate committed

stem cells to differentiate into proerythroblasts i.e.

stimulate the synthesis of messenger RNA.

  • The main factor that cause the release of erythropoietin

is hypoxia.


Maturation of Erythrocytes

  • Cell division requires two vitamins :
  1. Vitamin B


  1. Folic acid
  • The type of anemia due to lack of folic acid vit. B12 is

called megaloblastic anemia

Maturation of Erythrocytes

  • Size: diameter of 7.2 to 7.9 micrometers — edges 2.5

micrometers thicker than the center –about 1


  • Shape: biconcave discs
  • Content: hemoglobin, ATPase, & enzyme carbonic

anhydrase, water


Red blood cells

  • Red blood cell Count—5400000 in male &4700000 in


  • Anemia–RBC’s counts are less than normal value
  • Polycythemia– RBC’s count is more than normal


  • Life span of the RBC: average of 120 days in males &

110 days in females

Red blood cells

  • Packed cell volume (PCV) or hematochrit (hct)—volume

of RBC in  100 ml (dl) of blood.

  • In male is 47%, female is 42%.
  • Anemia PCV is less than normal while in Polycythemia

RBC is greater than normal value

  • Hemolysis of RBC

Red blood cells

  • Total blood Volume (TBV)
  • TBV = plasma volume + red cell volume
  • About 55% of this volume is plasma (3080 ml), and

about 45% of this volume is packed cell volume (2520


  • TBV in the average adult is 4-5 L in female & 5-6 L in

adult males.